Progress in Physics ›› 2023, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 57-67.doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.03.001

Special Issue: 2023年, 第43卷

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Historic Origin of Quantum Entanglement in Particle Physics


  1. 1. University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China; 2. CAS Center for Excellence in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Shanghai 201315, China
  • Online:2023-06-20 Published:2023-06-20


The historic origin of quantum entanglement in particle physics is studied systematically and in depth. In 1957, Bohm and Aharonov noted that the 1950 Wu-Shaknov experiment had realized the discrete version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation. Indeed this experiment was definitely the first experimental realization of spatially separated quantum entanglement in history. Such an experiment had been proposed by Wheeler, as a test of quantum electrodynamics, but his calculation was erroneous. The correct theoretical calculations were made by Ward and Pryce and also by Snyder, Pasternack and Hornbostel. The entangled state of the photons also satisfies the selection rule of C. N. Yang in 1949. After the publication of Bell inequality in 1964, discussions on whether Wu-Shaknov experiment can be exploited in testing the inequality inspired the progress of this field, and a new experiment was done by Wu’s group. In 1957, Lee, Oehme and Yang established the quantum mechanical formulation of the kaons, and discovered that neutral kaon is a two-state system. The following year,Goldhaber, Lee and Yang wrote down entangled states of a pair of kaons for the first time, in which each kaon is allowed to be charged or neutral, as the entanglement in internal degrees of high energy particles beyond photons written down for the first time. In 1960, as an unpublished work, Lee and Yang discussed an entangled state of a pair of neutral kaons. Such entangled kaons widely exist in meson factories later on. Several physicist are also introduced, especially Ward.

Key words: electron-positron pair, entangled photons, pseudoscalar meson, entangled mesons, kao

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