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    20 June 2024, Volume 44 Issue 3 Previous Issue   

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    Wave Velocity Measurement and Modulation of Surface Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Materials 
    WANG Ren-fei, LIU Xiao, WU Meng-meng, LIN Xi, LIU Yang
    2024, 44 (3):  103-111.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2024.03.001
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    In addition to the well-known conventional acoustic wave propagation mode in three-dimensional solids, there exists the surface acoustic wave propagation mode where energy is only concentrated near the two-dimensional interface. In this work, utilizing the piezoelectric and inverse piezoelectric effects from GaAs substrates, we achieve the conversion between radiofrequency electromagnetic waves and surface acoustic waves with planar interdigital transducers, and successfully measure the surface acoustic wave velocity on a sample with a dimension of only 4 mm using superheterodyne-scheme lock-in technique, yielding a result of (2.9±0.1) km/s. We also fabricate a uniaxial stress cell with piezoelectric ceramics, capable of applying uniaxial strains up to approximately 10−4 to the sample, and observe the influence of strain on the surface acoustic wave velocity. We measure the surface acoustic wave velocity of the important semiconductor GaAs under stress, demonstrating the capability of this velocity measurement technique to probe the internal mechanical properties of solids in situ. The wave velocity measurements based on planar interdigital transducers overcome the macroscopic size requirements of traditional time-of-flight and standing wave methods. The superheterodyne-scheme lock-in technique established in this article has replaced the commercial vector network analyzers for measuring surface acoustic wave velocity, enabling possible future applications with low power input and high phase stability. As the measurement setup can also be used for experimental teaching related to solid-state physics, this work provides detailed parameters and fabrication processes for surface acoustic wave devices and homemade stress cell.

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    Theoretical Insights into the Triplet-Pair State of Singlet Fissio
    TONG Lei, ZHANG Chun-feng
    2024, 44 (3):  112-122.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2024.03.002
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    Singlet fission is a photophysical process in organic materials where a photoexcited singlet exciton splits into two triplet excitons. This process has gained a lot of interest in the past decade for enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaic conversion. Precious work identified a crucial intermediate state in singlet fission, and the construction of the wave function for this correlated triplet-pair state poses a significant challenge. This article serves as a comprehensive introduction to theoretical models designed for constructing the wave function of the correlated triplet-pair. Subsequently, we delve into an exploration of the intricate effects of vibrational, orbital, and spin interactions on the formation and dissociation of the intermediate state. Finally, we conclude with a succinct summary of the challenges anticipated to shape the landscape of future theoretical research in this field.

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    Progress on High-Pressure Structure and Properties of Phosphorus and Phosphide
    HUANG Ye-hua, GUO Zhen-yuan, LI Jun-kai, YANG Xin, GOU Hui-yang
    2024, 44 (3):  123-135.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2024.03.003
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    Phosphorus,a group V non-metallic element, exhibits a unique electronic structure along with excellent optical, electrical and mechanical properties, and has a wide range of application prospects. Recent studies have demonstrated that phosphorus and phosphides are easily affected and regulated by external fields and have rich physical and chemical properties under high pressure. In addition, the unique structure and electronic properties of phosphorus and phosphides give them many physical properties that differ from those of traditional materials. Therefore, the use of high pressure to induce structural transformation and superconducting transformation in phosphorus and phosphides has become the focus of high-pressure research. In this paper, the structural, electrical, and optical responses of black phosphorus, germanium phosphide, and arsenic phosphide under high-pressure conditions are reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, we also explore the structure-activity relationships between the structures and physical properties and forecast the future research directions of phosphides under high pressure.

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    Recent Progress on the Effect of the Electronic Structure on Electrocatalytic Performance of Single Atom Catalysts
    HE Yue-xuan, WANG Tong-hui, WEN Zi, JIANG Qing
    2024, 44 (3):  136-156.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2024.03.004
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    Single atom catalysts (SACs) are promising candidates for various catalytic systems due to their unique electronic structures and the highest atom utilization. Modulating the electronic structure of SACs catalysts is the key to its further development, can optimize the adsorption and bonding energies of the catalysts by regulating the electronic properties, and thus improves the catalytic activity and stability. Herein, we provide a comprehensive understanding of SACs in catalysis through their electronic structures and their associated knowledges. Various electronic properties have been discussed, such as energy band structure, orbital hybridization and associated spin states, etc. Electrocatalysis as a technology for reducing carbon emissions and utilizing renewable energy sources which can address growing pollution problems, is receiving increasing attention, making the design of high-performance catalysts critical. From this review, we discusse how the electronic structure of SACs affects their electrochemical catalytic performance and explore its relationship with activity and stability of SACs. The understanding of the fundamentals of electronic structures in catalytic processes can provide rational guidance for the design of catalysts in various catalytic reactions in the future

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