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    20 June 2023, Volume 43 Issue 3 Previous Issue   

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    Historic Origin of Quantum Entanglement in Particle Physics
    SHI Yu
    2023, 43 (3):  57-67.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.03.001
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    The historic origin of quantum entanglement in particle physics is studied systematically and in depth. In 1957, Bohm and Aharonov noted that the 1950 Wu-Shaknov experiment had realized the discrete version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation. Indeed this experiment was definitely the first experimental realization of spatially separated quantum entanglement in history. Such an experiment had been proposed by Wheeler, as a test of quantum electrodynamics, but his calculation was erroneous. The correct theoretical calculations were made by Ward and Pryce and also by Snyder, Pasternack and Hornbostel. The entangled state of the photons also satisfies the selection rule of C. N. Yang in 1949. After the publication of Bell inequality in 1964, discussions on whether Wu-Shaknov experiment can be exploited in testing the inequality inspired the progress of this field, and a new experiment was done by Wu’s group. In 1957, Lee, Oehme and Yang established the quantum mechanical formulation of the kaons, and discovered that neutral kaon is a two-state system. The following year,Goldhaber, Lee and Yang wrote down entangled states of a pair of kaons for the first time, in which each kaon is allowed to be charged or neutral, as the entanglement in internal degrees of high energy particles beyond photons written down for the first time. In 1960, as an unpublished work, Lee and Yang discussed an entangled state of a pair of neutral kaons. Such entangled kaons widely exist in meson factories later on. Several physicist are also introduced, especially Ward.

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    Types and Properties of Copper-Oxide Superconductors with Critical Temperatures Above 110 K

    TONG Shu-yun, CAI Chuan-bing
    2023, 43 (3):  68-83.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.03.002
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    Oxide superconductor is one of the most important forms of unconventional superconductors, in which the transition temperatures of thallium series, mercury series and copper-carbon series superconductors can reach 110 K or above. High superconducting transition temperature and irreversible magnetic field in liquid nitrogen temperature region have attracted much attention. Obviously, the high superconducting critical temperature increases the choice of cooling medium for superconducting applications. Economical and practical coolants are expected to expand the application fields of these high superconducting transition temperature (T) superconductors and increase the feasibility of long-term operation. In this paper, the development and superconducting properties of 110 K superconducting materials including thallium, mercury and copper-carbon superconductors are introduced and summarized, and the factors affecting the superconducting transition temperature are analyzed theoretically to qualitatively explain the reasons for the high T of high temperature superconductors. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the differences of their irreversible fields, and the possible new applications of these high critical temperature superconductors are prospected.

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    Second-Order Nonlinear Optics in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
    WU Hui , QIN Chun-bo , ZHANG Chun-feng ,
    2023, 43 (3):  84-95.  doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.03.003
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    Second-order nonlinear optics is a crucial technique for light frequency conversion with broad applications in scientific research and technological advancements. Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit extraordinarily high second-order nonlinear susceptibilities, indicating their significant potential for efficient nonlinear optical response. Maintain the giant nonlinear coefficient of monolayer, expand material thickness and frequency response region, and improve nonlinear response is an important challenge. This paper presents an overview of the regulation of second-order nonlinear optical effects based on monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. We discuss the frequency dependence of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, as well as multi-layer stacking of different symmetric phases. Additionally, we summarize the potential applications of their nonlinear optical effects. 

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