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    A survey of heavy-antiheavy hadronic molecules
    Dong Xiang-Kun, Guo Feng-Kun, Zou Bing-Song
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (2): 65-93.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.02.001
    Abstract662)      PDF (1088KB)(4730)      

    Many efforts have been made to reveal the nature of the overabundant resonant structures observed by the worldwide experiments in the last two decades. Hadronic molecules attract special attention because many of these seemingly unconventional resonances are located close to the threshold of a pair of hadrons. To give an overall feature of the spectrum of hadronic molecules composed of a pair of heavy-antiheavy hadrons, namely, which pairs are possible to form molecular states, we take charmed hadrons for example to investigate the interaction between them and search for poles by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We consider all possible combinations of hadron pairs of the S-wave singly-charmed mesons and baryons as well as the narrow P-wave charmed mesons. The interactions, which are assumed to be meson-exchange saturated, are described by constant contact terms which are resummed to generate poles. It turns out that if a system is attractive near threshold by the light meson exchange, there is a pole close to threshold corresponding to a bound state or a virtual state, depending on the strength of interaction and the cutoff. In total, 229 molecular states are predicted. The observed near-threshold structures with hidden-charm, like the famous X(3872) and Pc states, fit into the spectrum we obtain. We also highlight a  ΛcΛc  bound state that has a pole consistent with the cross section of the e+e- ΛcΛc  precisely measured by the BESIII Collaboration.

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    A Brief History of Solid State Physics
    SHI Feng , HAN Xiu-jun , ZHANG Ling-cui , XU Yue , ZHANG Chuan-jiang
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (4): 170-187.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.04.002
    Abstract2162)      PDF (446KB)(4239)      

    The study of many-body problems in solid-state physics is an important branch of physics, covering a wide range of areas, and it is also the basis of many technical disciplines including materials science. This article discusses the brief history of the development of solid state physics, including the initial development history, the study of thermal properties, Weidmann-Franz law, the study history of the microscopic geometric structure of crystals, the free electron gas model, the energy band theory of solids, and the The research of solid magnetism, the information age, the development of solid state physics in China, and the teaching materials of solid state physics, etc., briefly describe the major events in the development of solid state physics, and the influential scientists and their contributions.

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    Development of Functional Materials for Photocatalytic Reduction of CO 2
    TANG Lan-qin, JIA Yin, ZHU Zhi-shang, WU Cong-ping, ZHOU Yong, ZOU Zhi-gang
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (6): 254-263.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.06.002
    Abstract2599)      PDF (3681KB)(3750)      

    With the increase of CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, seeking new energy sources to build a low carbon society has become more urgent since the 21st century. The conversion of CO2 to valuable hydrocarbon fuel driven by solar energy is of great potential and promising to realize the global carbon balance. Exploring semiconductor materials is very important for the photoreduction of CO2. Therefore, it will be the main research direction to fabricate highly efficient photocatalysis materials. This paper reviews recent research on photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to the hydrocarbon fuels in our groups, mainly focusing on nanostructure and component regulations of semiconductor catalysts, including TiO2, V, W, Ge Ga based materials, C3N4 based and some other materials, for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2.

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    Proximity effect in topological insulator/superconductor heterostructure
    He Jia-Dian, Ding Yi-Fan, Teng Bo-Lun, Dong Peng, Li Yi-Fei, Zhang Yi-Wen, Wu Yue-Shen, Wang Jing-Hui, Zhou Xiang, Wang Zhi, Li Jun
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (3): 113-135.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.03.001
    Abstract1701)      PDF (9251KB)(2415)      

    Topological superconductors have attracted increasing attentions for the purpose of the quantum computation, because the character of supporting topological qubits are immune to quantum decoherence and can be manipulated by braiding operation. Since the topological superconducting state is rather rare in the intrinsic topological superconductors, most of experimental efforts focus on inducing topological superconductors by the proximity effect in superconductor (SC)/topological insulator (TI) heterostructures. Fu and Kane have theoretically proposed that the topological superconductivity can be obtained by inducing an s-wave superconducting gap into TIs. After that, a lot of experimental progress has been made in different systems. In the first part of this review, we introduce the heterostructure of threedimensional (3D) TI Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 on s-wave SC NbSe2 and d-wave SC Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, topological crystalline insulator Sn1−xPbxTe on Pb, two-dimensional (2D) TI WTe2 on NbSe2, and TiBiSe2 on Pb. In the second part, the TI-based Josephson junctions are reviewed by introducing various experiments, including the Josephson junctions with TI barrier layers based on the Fu-Kane mode, and the superconducting quantum interference devices by TI based Josephson junctions.

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    Spin Hall Effect of Light and Its Applications in Measurements of Physical Parameters
    LIU Shuo-qing , CHEN Shi-zhen , LUO Hai-lu
    Progress in Physics    2022, 42 (2): 35-53.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2022.02.001
    Abstract1598)      PDF (8674KB)(2249)      
    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light refers to the transverse spin-dependent splitting of photons with opposite spin angular momentum after the beam passes through inhomogeneous media, in the direction perpendicular to the incident plane. It can be regarded as an analogue of the SHE in electronic systems, where the spin photons and the refractive index gradient replace the spin electrons and the electronic potential, respectively. Fundamentally, the SHE of light originates from the spin-orbit interaction of photons and depends mainly on two different geometric phases, namely, the spin redirection Rytov-Vlasimirskii-Berry phase in the momentum space and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase in the Stokes parameter space. Meanwhile, the SHE of light exhibits great sensitivity to the physical parameters, and combined with quantum weak measurements, has important application prospects in fields of physical parameters measurement and optical sensing. We briefly analyze the physical origin of the SHE of light, review its recent progress in different physical systems, and present its applications in measurements of physical parameters. Finally, the possible developing trends in optical analog computing, microscopy imaging, and quantum imaging are discussed.
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    Progress and Challenges of Indoor Photovoltaics
    Yang Wen-Fan, Li Meng, Wang Zhao-Kui
    Progress in Physics    2020, 40 (6): 175-187.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2020.06.001
    Abstract1396)      PDF (3237KB)(1772)      

    Along with the production and consumption of energy source, the indoor photovoltaics (IPV) gradually attracted public attention. As the power sources under low light conditions, IPV can satisfy the energy needs for some electron device with low power. This review focused and compared the characteristics of different types of IPV devices such as those based on silicon, dye, III-V semiconductors, organic compounds, and halide perovskites. Owing to optimal optical and physical properties, perovskite solar cells possess the potential to be IPV. Meanwhile, this review also concluded the limitations of IPV and gave the way to handle these key points such as power conversion efficiency (PCE)、toxicity and stability. Finally it expressed the prospects for IPVs

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    A Review on Band Unfolding Technique and Its Applications
    CHEN Jia-xin, CHEN Ming-xing
    Progress in Physics    2023, 43 (2): 25-40.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.02.001
    Abstract1521)      PDF (58451KB)(1679)      
    First-principles methods based on the density-functional theory have been widely applied to investigate structures and properties of materials and further to design new functional materials. The supercell method is usually used for the modeling of doped systems and interfaces. Unfortunately, the use of supercells leads to band foldings. As a result, the nature of electronic bands may be hidden, which brings difficulties in understanding the effects of doping and interfacing on the band structure of materials. This review provides recent advances in band unfolding technique within the plane-wave method and the linear combination of atomic orbitals. It also gives unfolding of phononic bands and lists a number of codes for band unfolding calculations. Finally, it presents a few applications of the technique and an outlook on further research options.
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    Hydrogen-Based Superconductors under High Pressures
    DU Ming-yang, ZHANG Zi-han, DUAN De-fang, CUI Tian
    Progress in Physics    2022, 42 (5): 184-192.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2022.05.002
    Abstract662)      PDF (3042KB)(1595)      

    Achieving room temperature superconductivity has always been the dream of mankind pursuing for a long time. Finding and synthesizing new materials with room temperature superconductivity is the ”Holy Grail” of condensed matter physics. Since the theoretical and experimental discovery of H3S and LaH10 with high superconducting critical temperature above 200 K, the hydrogen-based superconductors became the best candidate for achieving room temperature superconductivity, which is also one of the hot areas of multi-disciplinary research in physics, materials science etc. In this work, we outline the development history of superconductors, introduce several typical superconducting materials, focus on the current progress and challenges of hydrogen based superconductors under high pressures, discuss the design ideas of hydrogen based high-temperature superconductors in the middle and low pressure range, and look forward to the possibility of hydrogen-based superconductors with high critical temperature and even room temperature under low pressure or ambient pressure.

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    Gauge Field and Fiber Bundle:Its Contents, Methods, and Meanings 
    ZHAO Song-nian , LU Bo, CHEN Ken, HUANG Xu
    Progress in Physics    2023, 43 (1): 10-24.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.01.002
    Abstract1023)      PDF (708KB)(1509)      
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    Development Status of Topological Superfluid in Ultracold Atoms
    FENG Jian, ZHANG Wei-wei, LIN Liang-wei, CAI Qi-peng, ZHANG Yi-cai, LIU Chao-fei
    Progress in Physics    2022, 42 (3): 67-95.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2022.03.001
    Abstract495)      PDF (1246KB)(1384)      
    The topological superfluid state is protected by the energy gap in the bulk, but it can accommodate the gapless Majorana fermions at the edge of the system. The Majorana fermions satisfy non-Abelian statistics and are protected by topology and have good stability, they can carry quantized information and can be used in the study of topological quantum computing. In recent years, theoretical work has predicted the possible topological superfluid states in various systems. Firstly, we introduce the topological superfluid in various optical lattice models. The ultracold atoms of optical lattice have good controllability and universality. It is an ideal model system to realize topological superfluid. Next, we introduce the topological superfluid under the control of spin orbit coupling. The spin orbit coupling effect is an important condition to induce the topological phase, and the artificial spin orbit coupling has been realized in the experiment. Which makes a breakthrough for the experimental observation of topological superfluid. With the improvement of experimental technology in recent years, the topological FFLO superfluid phase, which was difficult to observe in the experiment and ignored by people, has also become a research hotspot. Therefore, we next introduce the topological FFLO superfluid. In addition, we also introduce the progress in other aspects of topological superfluid, including topological superfluid induced by soliton, three-component topological superfluid, topological superfluid with large Chern number, and the high critical temperature of topological superfluid. In the experiment, how to detect and implement topological superfluid is the purpose and significance of our research. Therefore, we introduce the identification and implementation of topological superfluid at the end of the article.
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    The exotic electronic properties of the topological Kondo insulator SmB 6
    ZHAO Gan, ZHANG Ming-yuan, WANG Jia-min, ZHANG Wang, MIAO Lin
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (6): 231-.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.06.001
    Abstract727)      PDF (9363KB)(1223)      

    The topological Kondo insulator (TKI) is an intrinsic electronic correlated topological system in which the bulk bandgap is originated from the Kondo correlation. Since the theoretical idea of TKI was proposed in 2010, SmB6 was predicted to be the first candidate topological Kondo insulator. In the last decade, SmB6 was investigated extensively by various experimental methods, and the accumulated evidence confirmed that SmB6 is a topological Kondo insulator. This review article presented some key experimental evidence, including electronic transportation measurements, ARPES study of low-energy band structure, and STM characterization of the surface. We also discussed how these experimental results establish the topological narrative of SmB6. Meanwhile, some extremely exotic properties like the 3D quantum oscillations and the bulk-surface valence seperation of SmB6 are exhibited. The related physical origin is still unknown and needs extra efforts to unveil the underlying physics.

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    Study of the Synthesis of Super Heavy Nuclei Based on Dinuclear System
    WANG Yi-peng, GUO Shu-qing, BAO Xiao-jun, DENG Jun-gang, ZHANG Hong-fei
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (4): 157-169.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.04.001
    Abstract563)      PDF (1138KB)(1162)      

    This review firstly introduces two low energy heavy ion reaction mechanisms. Then, based on these theories, we have developed a dinuclear system model describing the synthesis of super heavy nuclear. Different from Adamian’s calculation method, we solve the master equation numerically to describe the heavy ion fusion mechanism. This review chooses 1D to 3D different macroscopic degrees of freedom to illustrate the fusion of heavy ions, focusing on the development and evolution of the master equation during the fusion process, and providing a theoretical basis for further development of models and predictions of new nuclides in the future.

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    Photocurrent Mapping of Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cell
    ZHAO Xiao-xia, TIAN Wen-ming, SUN Zhong-gao, JIN Sheng-ye
    Progress in Physics    2022, 42 (2): 54-60.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2022.02.002
    Abstract678)      PDF (751KB)(1159)      
    Developing an interplay between the local morphological character, optoelectronic properties and its local photovoltaic parameters in a perovskite thin film is essential for guiding the construction of highly-efficient perovskite solar cells (PSC). In this work, by using a laserscanned and time-resolved confocal microscopy coupled with a picoammeter detection module, we realize in-situ photoluminescence (PL) intensity, PL lifetime, and photocurrent mappings in a two-dimensional (2D) PSC. A significant negative correlation is found between photocurrent and PL intensity and PL lifetime imaging within grains of the perovskite polycrystalline film. We establish the correlation between local photovoltaic parameters, optoelectronic properties, and morphology character, which provides theoretical guidance for the optimization of PSC performance.
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    Probing the Electronic Structure and Dimensionality Tuning of Ce-Based Heavy Fermion Materials
    WU Yi , LI Peng , WU Zhong-zheng , FANG Yuan , LIU Yang
    Progress in Physics    2022, 42 (3): 96-120.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2022.03.002
    Abstract502)      PDF (2002KB)(1133)      
    Heavy fermion compound is a classical type of correlated materials, encompassing unconventional superconductivity, strange metal, quantum criticality, magnetic order, heavy electronic states, correlated topological states, etc, in which 4f electrons play a critical role. With the advancement of high-resolution ARPES measurements and MBE thin film growth techniques, direct observation of the band dispersion and spectral weight of 4f electrons in momentum/energy space has become possible, providing spectroscopic insight for understanding correlated electronic states and novel quantum phenomena. In this review paper, we summarized the electronic studies of several typical heavy fermion compounds and thin films, including Ce-115 families, CuCu2Si2, CeRh6Ge4 and Ce films, etc. The experimental results provide direct evidence to understand the temperature evolution of heavy electronic states, energy/moment-dependent Kondo hybridization, the interplay of heavy electronic state with superconductivity, the competition between Kondo effect with other quantum states and the dimensionality tuning of 4f electrons.
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    MAX phase:Synthesis, Structure and Property
    Tian Li, Fu Chao, Li Yue-Ming, Fan Xiao-Xing, Wang En-Ge, Zhao Guo-Rui
    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (1): 39-61.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.01.002
    Abstract1832)      PDF (26993KB)(1124)      
    MAX phase ceramics have a unique crystal structure in which MX sheets and A-element layers are alternately stacked, so that it has both the excellent characteristics of metal and ceramics. They exhibit high electrical and thermal conductivities, and are machinable. And at the same time, they are resistant to oxidation and corrosion, and elastic stiff. They are attracting more and more attention in the past 20 years with their potential widely applications. In this paper, some research work on MAX phase and MXenes materials are reviewed. Firstly, recent discoveries on the newly MAX phases and their preparation method are introduced. Then, from the physical-property perspective, the research progress on the elastic, electrical, thermal and magnetic properties and radiation resistance of typical MAX phases is reviewed. In addition, a further introduction of MXene, which is a two-dimensional derivative of MAX phases, and its synthesis, characterization, properties and its application in electrochemical energy storage and in catalysis is presented. Finally, important future research directions are discussed. These include charting the unknown regions in phase diagrams to discover new MAX phases, exploring their unknown special physical properties, studying 2D derivative MXene, as well as researching their synthesis, characterization, and potential applications.
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    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (4): 188-197.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.04.003
    Abstract510)      PDF (4466KB)(1112)      
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    Progress in Physics    2021, 41 (5): 221-229.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.05.003
    Abstract422)      PDF (6185KB)(1076)      
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    Historic Origin of Quantum Entanglement in Particle Physics
    SHI Yu
    Progress in Physics    2023, 43 (3): 57-67.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2023.03.001
    Abstract915)      PDF (1284KB)(1037)      

    The historic origin of quantum entanglement in particle physics is studied systematically and in depth. In 1957, Bohm and Aharonov noted that the 1950 Wu-Shaknov experiment had realized the discrete version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation. Indeed this experiment was definitely the first experimental realization of spatially separated quantum entanglement in history. Such an experiment had been proposed by Wheeler, as a test of quantum electrodynamics, but his calculation was erroneous. The correct theoretical calculations were made by Ward and Pryce and also by Snyder, Pasternack and Hornbostel. The entangled state of the photons also satisfies the selection rule of C. N. Yang in 1949. After the publication of Bell inequality in 1964, discussions on whether Wu-Shaknov experiment can be exploited in testing the inequality inspired the progress of this field, and a new experiment was done by Wu’s group. In 1957, Lee, Oehme and Yang established the quantum mechanical formulation of the kaons, and discovered that neutral kaon is a two-state system. The following year,Goldhaber, Lee and Yang wrote down entangled states of a pair of kaons for the first time, in which each kaon is allowed to be charged or neutral, as the entanglement in internal degrees of high energy particles beyond photons written down for the first time. In 1960, as an unpublished work, Lee and Yang discussed an entangled state of a pair of neutral kaons. Such entangled kaons widely exist in meson factories later on. Several physicist are also introduced, especially Ward.

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    Nonlinear Dynamics and Applications of Spin Hall Nano-Oscillators
    Liu Rong-Hua , Li Li-Yuan , Chen Li-Na , Zhou Kai-Yuan , Du You-Wei
    Progress in Physics    2020, 40 (6): 189-210.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2020.06.003
    Abstract1016)      PDF (3549KB)(1018)      

    Spin Hall nano oscillator (SHNO), a new type spintronic nano-device, can generate microwave signal and excite coherent spin waves due to spin current-driven magnetization precession and have strong potential for applications from data storage,rf communication, microwave generation to neuromorphic computing. In this review, we focus on the complex nonlinear dynamic characteristics of spin-wave modes generated by SHNOs in the various ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic (FM/NM) bilayer systems with an extended free layer. Based on the abundantly previous experimental results obtained by combining microwave spectroscopy and micro-focused Brillouin light scattering techniques, as well as micromagnetic simulation, we detailedly describe and summarize the experimental parameters dependent magnetic dynamics of SHNOs with different device configurations and magnetic materials, such as in-plane nanogap-type, nanoconstriction-type, nanowire-type, vertical nanocontact-type SHNOs with in-plane or out-of-plane magnetization. Finally, we also discuss mutual synchronization of SHNO arrays and the potential applications in magnon-based logic devices with ultralow energy consumption and spin-based artificial neural network for neuromorphic computing in the field of artificial intelligence.

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    Quantum Radar Schemes with Enhanced Accuracy and Its Progress
    LI Yong-qiang , REN Chang-liang
    Progress in Physics    2022, 42 (2): 61-65.   DOI: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2022.02.003
    Abstract621)      PDF (199KB)(950)      
    As a matter of great concern, positioning tasks can be realized with the help of quantum technologies, and these quantum schemes exhibit advantages that are impossible in classical schemes. Several quantum radar schemes have been proposed, which give new insights for positioning tasks from the perspective of quantum information. This paper reviewed those proposed quantum radar schemes according to the basic concepts and classification Especially, three typical quantum schemes, quantum positioning, quantum illumination, and three-dimensional enhanced quantum radar, were introduced in principle, and analyzed their imperative problems.
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