Progress in Physics ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 113-135.doi: 10.13725/j.cnki.pip.2021.03.001

Special Issue: 2023年, 第43卷

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Proximity effect in topological insulator/superconductor heterostructure

He Jia-Dian1,2, Ding Yi-Fan1,2, Teng Bo-Lun1,2, Dong Peng1,2, Li Yi-Fei1,2, Zhang Yi-Wen1,2, Wu Yue-Shen1,2, Wang Jing-Hui1,2, Zhou Xiang1,2, Wang Zhi3, Li Jun1,2   

  1. 1. School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031, China; 2. ShanghaiTech Laboratory for Topological Physics, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031, China; 3. School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Online:2021-06-20 Published:2021-06-18
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61771234, 12004251), National Key Projects for Research and Development of China (No. 2017YFB0503302), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (No. 20ZR1436100), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, the startup funding from ShanghaiTech University, and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics.


Topological superconductors have attracted increasing attentions for the purpose of the quantum computation, because the character of supporting topological qubits are immune to quantum decoherence and can be manipulated by braiding operation. Since the topological superconducting state is rather rare in the intrinsic topological superconductors, most of experimental efforts focus on inducing topological superconductors by the proximity effect in superconductor (SC)/topological insulator (TI) heterostructures. Fu and Kane have theoretically proposed that the topological superconductivity can be obtained by inducing an s-wave superconducting gap into TIs. After that, a lot of experimental progress has been made in different systems. In the first part of this review, we introduce the heterostructure of threedimensional (3D) TI Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 on s-wave SC NbSe2 and d-wave SC Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, topological crystalline insulator Sn1−xPbxTe on Pb, two-dimensional (2D) TI WTe2 on NbSe2, and TiBiSe2 on Pb. In the second part, the TI-based Josephson junctions are reviewed by introducing various experiments, including the Josephson junctions with TI barrier layers based on the Fu-Kane mode, and the superconducting quantum interference devices by TI based Josephson junctions.

Key words: proximity effect, topological superconductor, heterostructure, Josephson junction

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